A funny thing happened on the way to a defense verdict last year—after the jury decided that the defendant’s product was not defective, the MDL judge told the jurors that perhaps they did not “fully understand” and instructed them to try again. So the jury went back into the jury room, and having been duly admonished by the court, the jury changed its mind and returned a verdict for the plaintiff.  We commented fully on the proceedings here, and while we will not repeat all the gory details, trust us, the proceedings were odd.

The Eleventh Circuit has now affirmed the plaintiff’s verdict, and the defendant has valid reasons to be unhappy. Not only did the Eleventh Circuit place its stamp of approval on the do-over verdict, it applied a hopelessly muddled view of comment k.

The case is Christiansen v. Wright Medical Technology, Inc., No. 16-12162, 2017 WL 1046088 (11th Cir. Mar. 20, 2017).  The plaintiff alleged that a defect in the defendant’s metal-on-metal hip replacement device caused him an injury, and he asserted product liability claims governed by Utah law. Id. at *1.  As luck would have it, the case was selected as a “bellwether” trial case in the Conserve Hip Implant MDL, and after a trial that lasted about a week, the jury returned a verdict finding that the product was not defectively designed. Id. The jury also found that the defendant had made negligent misrepresentations and awarded compensatory and punitive damages. Id.

Under Utah law, this is a defense verdict. The Utah Products Liability Statute covers all claims for injuries allegedly caused by defective products, and it requires proof of a product defect.  As a result, once the jury found that the product was not defective, nothing else mattered.  The defendant won.  The court, however, ruled that the verdict was “inconsistent” because the jury found no defect on the one hand, but also found negligent misrepresentation on the other. Id. That is why the court re-instructed the jury, resulting in the second verdict finding a product defect. Id.

The Eleventh Circuit affirmed this result, and its opinion relies on the assumption that the first verdict was “inconsistent.” Id. at **5-7.  But what inconsistency?  The jury made two core findings—no defect and negligent misrepresentation.  Maybe the evidence supported those findings and maybe it did not, but it is very possible for a defendant to make a misrepresentation and also sell a product that is free from design defects.  (There were no manufacturing or warning-based defect claims, in case you were wondering.)  The finding of no defect makes the misrepresentation finding meaningless under Utah law.  They are not “inconsistent.”  The former just deprives the latter of any legal consequence.

For whatever reason, the district judge saw an “inconsistency,” and the Eleventh Circuit deferred. The Eleventh Circuit tries to explain the proceedings in the district court, but in the end, it really did not explain why the initial verdict called for further deliberation.  It seems to have taken that for granted.

There is a second problem with the Eleventh Circuit’s opinion—it declined to apply Utah’s adoption of Comment k and gave a reason that simply does not hold up. Comment k to section 402A of the Restatement (Second) or Torts provides protection against strict liability claims involving “unavoidably unsafe products.”  Nearly all states have adopted some version of Comment k—some apply it on a case-by-case basis; some treat it as an affirmative defense; some apply Comment k as a matter of law in all cases involving prescription medical products, recognizing that all drugs and medical devices have both benefits and risks.

Utah has adopted Comment k, but has placed the burden on the defendant to prove certain elements to invoke Comment k as a defense. However, in cases involving prescription medical products, the Utah Supreme Court has “rejected the case-by-case approach and adopted Comment k as a categorical bar against strict liability.” Id. at **7-8 (quoting Grundberg v. Upjohn Co., 813 P.2d 89 (Utah 1991)).  Comment k therefore applies in Utah across the board, and the Defendant justifiably argued to the Eleventh Circuit that Comment k applied and that it should result in a judgment for the defense.

The Eleventh Circuit “predicted” Utah law differently. According to the Eleventh Circuit, the Utah Supreme Court applied Comment k to prescription drugs because they are FDA approved. Id. at *8.  It therefore held that the Utah Supreme Court would not apply comment k categorically to medical devices. Id. at **8-9.  It further held that, even if Comment k applied to “FDA-approved medical devices,” the defendant had not carried its burden of proving that the product was FDA approved. Id. at **8-9.

There is so much wrong with this holding. To start, with the Utah Supreme Court having decided that Comment k applies to prescription drugs, there is no basis on which to predict that Utah law would be different for prescription medical devices.  The rationale for applying Comment k is the same—no matter how you design a drug or medical device, there will always be risks. (See here for our research post on comment k, including a 50-state survey.)  In addition, the Eleventh Circuit’s fixation on FDA approval to distinguish prescription drugs from prescription medical devices ignores that the FDA regulates medical devices, too.  It also ignores that drugs are approved for marketing in different ways—some through full-blown new drug applications, some under pre-NDA rules, some through a showing of substantial equivalence, etc.  Comment K applies to all of them, and the Utah Supreme Court has never drawn a distinction.  There is no reason to believe it would draw a distinction between drugs and medical devices because of their respective regulatory pathways either.

Finally, the Eleventh Circuit held that Comment k would not help the defendant in any event because the defendant did not prove that the product was approved by the FDA. This is wrong.  Utah’s version of Comment k requires the defendant to prove certain elements, but FDA approval is not one of them.  Neither the Utah pattern jury instruction nor the instruction given by the district court called for the defendant to prove FDA approval.  Yet, the Eleventh Circuit based its opinion on this purported failure of proof.

We can’t help but consider the possibility that this plaintiff’s judgment had more staying power because it came out of an MDL “bellwether” trial. Maybe.  Maybe not.  It seems to us that if you assume that “bellwether” verdicts actually help the parties value other cases, a defense verdict is as useful as a plaintiff’s verdict.  Both have dollar amounts attached to them, and the number attached to the defense verdict is zero, plus the defendant’s costs.  That should have been the result in Christiansen.

If you have been following along for a while, then you have surely run across our posts making some combination of the following points:  1) design defect claims rarely make sense for a drug because changing the design in some material way will usually make it a different drug, 2) such design defect claims, if recognized by state law, will usually be preempted because FDA approval of a different drug cannot be assumed, and 3) courts really should analyze conflict preemption by first determining that there is an actual state law duty that has been asserted or supported (depending on the procedural posture).  One such post walked through why it took so long until a circuit court held that a design defect claim with a prescription drug was preempted.   That case, Yates, has been followed a number of times, including on motions to dismiss, but there are still some glitches.

The decision in Young v. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., No. 4:16-CV-00108-DMB-JMV, 2017 WL 706320 (D. Miss. Feb. 22, 2017), counts as a glitch on the preemption front even though the court dismissed (without prejudice) the design defect claim and eight of the nine other claims asserted.  The plaintiff claimed to have suffered ketoacidosis and renal failure from taking a prescription diabetes medication right around the time FDA issued a Public Health Advisory about the risk of ketoacidosis for the class of medications, SGLT-2 inhibitors, to which it belonged.  Several months later, the drug’s label was revised to include warnings about ketoacidosis and urosepsis, a blood infection stemming from a urinary tract infection.  Plaintiff claimed that the inherent design of the drug, like all SGLT-2 inhibitors, created a risk of ketoacidosis.  When plaintiff sued, she asserted a wide range of claims and defendants moved to dismiss on various grounds.  We will address only some of them.

Part of our point here is that the order can matter.  We do not have the briefs, so all we can go off of here is the opinion.  After the preliminary issue of whether common law claims are subsumed by the Mississippi Product Liability Act—the four here were—the court starts off the meat of the analysis with this:  “The defendants argue that Young’s claim for defective design must fail because Young has failed to plead a feasible design alternative and because federal law preempts the design defect claims.” Id. at *5. So, what gets analyzed first? Preemption. (Remember, federal courts are supposed to try to resolve disputes on nonconstitutional grounds if they can.) In so doing, the court has to hold out as unresolved whether Mississippi law imposes the very duties that might create the conflict leading to preemption. As the court recognized at the end of its, to us, flawed preemption analysis:

If there is no state law duty, the state law cause of action must certainly fail but there can be no conflict so as to justify preemption. Put differently, the absence of a state law duty is fatal to a claim but not under the doctrine of conflict preemption.

Id. at *8.  This logic suggests that the court needs to decide first whether there is a state law duty to do what the plaintiff urges was necessary.  Because the court never determined that there was such a duty, the whole discussion of preemption seems like a bunch of dictum to us.

Continue Reading Another Court Tackles Prescription Drug Design Defect

This post comes from the Cozen O’Connor side of the blog.

We’ve been following the Pinnacle MDL closely through the last two bellwether trials, starting with the news coming out of the second bellwether trial of particularly curious and prejudicial evidence being presented to the jury. Given that evidence, we expected a plaintiffs’ victory, an expectation that was borne out with a whopping $498 million verdict. It raised an immediate question: “What will the Fifth Circuit do?”

Well, we’re on our way to finding out. The defense recently filed their opening appellate brief. While it features the controversial evidentiary rulings, much more is in play. If you would like to take a look for yourself, here is the brief.  Below are some of the key issues, along with a quick description of the defense’s arguments:

Design Defect Claim against DePuy (Brief at 20-29): Claim that all metal-on-metal hip implants are defective is not viable under Texas law because a wholly different product cannot serve as a safer design; design claim is preempted because the FDA approved metal-on-metal hip implants; and design claim fails under Restatement (Second) of Torts 402A comment k (adopted in Texas), which recognizes that products like implantable devices are unavoidably unsafe and therefore not defective if properly made and warned about.

Continue Reading Briefing Underway in Appeal of Half-Billion-Dollar Verdict in Pinnacle MDL

Back in 2013, inspired by a win of our own that we were actually allowed to blog about, we put up a post entitled “On Alternative Design.”  Taking the alternative design requirement for strict liability as a given, we concentrated in that post on the proposition that an “alternative” design must really constitute a different design for the same product, and not a disguised “stop selling” or “never start selling” claim where the only “alternative” is a different product or, worse, a completely different medical procedure not utilizing that sort of product at all.

Since then, we’ve written about alternative designs several other times, but never comprehensively.

Today, we’re doing something a little different. We’re examining whether an alternative design is also an element of a design-related claim sounding in negligence.  As the rest of this post demonstrates, the overwhelming weight of nationwide precedent established that negligent design claims require the plaintiff to establish the existence of a feasible alternative design the would have prevented the plaintiff’s injuries.

We touched upon the alternative design issue somewhat in our post excoriating the Pennsylvania Supreme Court’s bizarre opinion in Lance v. Wyeth, 85 A.3d 434 (Pa. 2014). Lance put the rabbit in the hat and held, for a product allegedly:  (1) “too dangerous to be used by anyone,” and (2) that had been removed from the market by the FDA, a negligent design case could be stated even though the plaintiff didn’t even attempt to prove an alternative design. Id. at 458-60.  What Lance adopted, of course, was a pure “stop selling” claim of the sort preempted under Mutual Pharmaceutical Co. v. Bartlett, 133 S.Ct. 2466 (2013).  “[W]e are convinced that a manufacturer or supplier has a duty to cease further distribution of a product . . . [that] is too dangerous to be used by anyone.” Lance, 85 A.3d at 460.

Generally, in Pennsylvania, negligent design cases have required proof of alternative designs, except in the limited Lance recalled product situation.  “The determination of whether a product was negligently designed turns on whether an alternative, feasible, safer design would have lessened or eliminated the injury plaintiff suffered.”  Berrier v. Simplicity Manufacturing, Inc., 563 F.3d 38, 64 (3d Cir. 2009) (emphasis original). See, e.g., Kosmack v. Jones, 807 A.2d 927, 931 (Pa. Commw. 2002) (“a plaintiff bears the burden of establishing that there is an alternative design” in negligent design defect cases); Smith v. Yamaha Motor Corp., 5 A.3d 314, 322-23 (Pa. Super. 2010) (requiring proof of alternative design for all-terrain vehicle).

Continue Reading On Alternative Design, Take Two − Negligence

Kentucky –sure, it gets pretty sticky in the summer, and the bluegrass isn’t really blue, and Wildcats fans – well, they’re a breed of their own. But give us the bourbon, the chicken, and the Derby and we’ll be singing “My Old Kentucky Home” and “Coal Miner’s Daughter” with the rest of the Kentucky natives.

DeMoss v. Eli Lilly & Co., 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 19142 (W.D. Ken. Feb. 10, 2017) is a bit like the commonwealth it’s from — we like some pieces and others we could certainly do without. The case involves an anti-clotting drug which plaintiff alleges led to her husband’s fatal internal bleeding. Plaintiff asserted claims for design, manufacturing, and failure to warn defects under both strict liability and negligence; breach of implied warranties; negligent misrepresentation; and violation of the Kentucky Consumer Protection Act. Id. at *5. On the defendant’s motion to dismiss, all claims except design defect and failure to warn were dismissed without prejudice.

On strict liability, Kentucky has adopted comment k’s exception for unavoidably unsafe products such as prescription drugs and devices, but has not adopted it across the board. Rather, applicability of comment k is determined on a case-by-case basis using a risk-utility test. Id. at *6-7. So, at the pleadings stage, the court was unwilling to toss out plaintiff’s strict liability claim as a matter of law finding the inquiry too fact dependent. Id. at *8. This approach kicks a comment k analysis to the summary judgment stage.

Defendant also argued that plaintiff’s pleading of strict liability design defect was insufficient under TwIqbal. The court disagreed finding that plaintiff’s allegation that the drug carried “an unreasonably high bleeding risk without any reversal agent” and that plaintiff’s husband died as a result of that injury, was more than just regurgitating the basic elements of a design defect claim. Id. at *9. And on the issue of pleading an alternative design, the court allows a different drug to serve as the alternative design. Id. There isn’t much discussion of this and so we hope it’s something that can be more fully explored later in the case – after all, a different drug is a different drug, not an alternative design for the drug at issue. The court similarly found that plaintiff had pleaded enough for her failure to warn claim to survive. Id. at *12. In addition to alleging a failure to adequately warn about the increased risk of bleeding, plaintiff also alleged a failure to adequately test which the court found was not an independent cause of action, but was subsumed in the failure to warn claim. Id. at *15. Based on very similar reasoning, the court allowed both negligent design defect and negligent failure to warn to stand as well. Id. at *13-14.

Strict liability and negligent manufacturing defect claims, however, were both dismissed. Unlike with design defect and failure to warn, plaintiff’s manufacturing defect claims were nothing more than a recitation of the elements of the claim with no specificity or factual support. Id. at *10-11. The complaint fails to allege how the drug taken by plaintiff’s husband deviated from the defendant’s specifications or standard processes or how any such failure caused her husband’s injury. Id. at *11; *13-14 (negligent manufacturing claim dismissed).

Next the court dismissed plaintiff’s breach of implied warranty claim for lack of privity. Id. at *15-16. The same lack of privity was the downfall for plaintiff’s claim for violation of the Kentucky Consumer Protection Act (“KCPA”). Id. at *21. The KCPA, however, has a privity exception when a plaintiff alleges express representations were made. Plaintiff here tried to claim her failure to warn allegations demonstrated express representations that would allow her to fall within the exception. But those allegations did not rise to the level of being “affirmations of fact or promise” that qualify as express representations, so the claim was dismissed. Id. at *23.

On negligent misrepresentation, while plaintiff attempted to argue that she had made out the who, what, where, when and why to satisfy even the heightened pleading standards of Federal Rule 9(b), all of those allegations were about concealing or omitting facts. Under Kentucky law, a claim for negligent misrepresentation “requires an affirmative false statement; a mere omission will not do.” Id. at *20. Essentially, plaintiff wasn’t allowed to re-package her failure to warn claim as an additional negligent misrepresentation claim.

While it’s not a slam dunk (something Wildcats fans are seeing a lot of recently), it’s a much smaller complaint that advances to the next round. Not perfect, but good enough for now.

 

A recent case in the Southern District of New York debunks two myths that we see all the time. Myth number one:  A medical device is defective if it fails.  Myth number two:  A plaintiff can prove causation on a failure-to-warn claim by asserting that he or she would not have consented to the procedure if his or her doctor had told her about some risk.  Plaintiffs often assert these positions.  Neither is true.  And the magistrate judge’s report and recommendation granting summary judgment in Tomaselli v. Zimmer Inc., No. 14-CV-04474, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 9874 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. 20, 2017), does a really nifty job explaining why.

In Tomaselli, the plaintiff was treated with a hip repair device—a Greater Trochanter Reattachment device, or GTR.  A GTR is not like the ball-and-socket total hip replacement devices that have generated so much litigation and with which so many of our readers are familiar.  A GTR consists of a plate and two 1.8 millimeter cables that are surgically implanted to reinforce the top of a patient’s femur—the trochanter—in the event of a fracture. Id. at **1-2.

The plaintiff later complained of hip pain, and imaging revealed that one of the cables broke. Id. at *5.  It is not clear whether the broken cable made any difference:  The cable stayed in place, and removing it would not have alleviated the pain. Id. The evidence also suggests that the pain was not substantial:  The plaintiff went for long periods of time between doctor’s appointments; she was able to exercise and engage in daily activities; and she testified that stretching and taking a few steps would relieve any pain. Id. at *6.  The plaintiff sued the device’s manufacturer and distributor anyway, alleging a variety of product liability claims.

The defendants moved for summary judgment under New York law, and the magistrate recommended granting their motion on every claim. The magistrate’s report and recommendation is particularly interesting on the two issues that we foreshadowed above—failure to warn and product defect.

Continue Reading Hip Case Breaks the Right Way in New York

We don’t write a lot on the various pelvic mesh MDLs in West Virginia because we are so heavily involved in two of them. But the MDL court entered an order last week on design defect and alternative design that we consider to be a real gem.  The case is Mullins v. Ethicon, Inc., No. 2:12-cv-02952, 2016 WL 7197441 (S.D. W. Va. Dec. 9, 2016), and we recommend it to all of you.  We say that not only because the district court held that West Virginia law requires that each plaintiff must prove a feasible alternative design—which is the correct result—but also because the order is particularly well reasoned.

Not every state requires proof of a feasible alternative design, but it is nevertheless a basic product liability concept. It is a particularly good fit when dealing with products that always bear risks—such as implanted medical devices.  The Restatement (Third) of Torts, Product Liability § 2 is as good a place as any to start, as it bakes alternative design right into the definition of a design defect:  “A product . . . (b) is defective in design when the foreseeable risks of harm posed by the product could have been reduced or avoided by the adoption of a reasonable alternative design by the seller or other distributor, or a predecessor in the commercial chain of distribution, and the omission of the alternative design renders the product not reasonably safe.”  (emphasis added).

Take the obvious example of a machine with sharp spinning parts. The same machine with a protective guard may be a safer alternative design.  Or it might not.  The point is that the plaintiff has to prove it.  Take also the example we discussed in Bexis’ aptly named post “On Alternative Design.”  That case involved hernia mesh, not pelvic mesh, and the plaintiffs’ claims failed because, among other reasons, they had failed to prove that a mesh of a different design would have been any safer.  Consider hormone-based contraceptives.  Cholesterol drugs.  We could go on and on.  All these products bear known and unavoidable risks, and those risks should not be labeled “defects” and result in potential liability unless the plaintiff can prove an alternate design would feasibly mitigate them.  And, no, it is not sufficient to say that the feasible alternative is to use a different product or not use any product at all.  As we observed in the aforementioned post, that would convert strict liability into absolute liability.  As we asked in yet another post on this topic, are motorcycles defective because full-sized automobiles are generally safer?  You get the point.

Continue Reading A Gem on Alternative Design from a Pelvic Mesh MDL

Drug and device cases regularly involve plaintiffs who have suffered serious injuries, the type that engender sympathy, even from defense attorneys. It’s understandable that a plaintiff who suffered such trauma would turn to the courts for redress. But bad experiences do not make a viable drug or device claim. Drugs and devices have inherent risks, so the law requires more than injury due to those risks for a viable products liability claim. Generally, the injury must result from a defect of some sort, such as a design, manufacturing or warning defect. If a plaintiff doesn’t allege such a defect, the court must dismiss the claim, no matter how traumatic the plaintiff’s injury.

Smith v. Pride Mobility Products Corp., 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 149955 (N.D. Cal. Oct. 28, 2016), illustrates this. The plaintiff was wheelchair-bound and claimed that, while attending a Renaissance Fair, the power to her wheelchair gave out as she was trying to climb a steep hill. Ultimately, the wheelchair went into a free-wheel fall at a sharp angle down the hill, throwing plaintiff from the wheelchair to the ground. Plaintiff claimed serious injury to her neck and knee, permanent disability to one of her toes, whiplash and serious psychological and emotional distress resulting from the event and her injuries.

These allegations no doubt suggest great trauma for the plaintiff. But do they state a claim? The initial consideration for a court is not the severity of the injuries or the trauma that led to them but whether the plaintiff’s allegations are sufficient to state a viable products liability claim. Here, the Smith court did its job. It reviewed plaintiff’s allegations dispassionately and determined that plaintiff had not made the type of allegations necessary to state a manufacturing defect claim:

In order to allege a strict products liability claim under a manufacturing-defect theory, a plaintiff “must identify/explain how the [product] either deviated from [the company’s] intended result/design or how the [product] deviated from other seemingly identical” models of the product.

Here, Plaintiff states that the wheelchair started “freewheeling down [a] hill” after Plaintiff placed the wheelchair in reverse on a hill and that the wheelchair “was either defective or . . . deliberately designed to” freewheel in such a manner. The complaint does not state how the wheelchair that Plaintiff purchased is different from the design of the wheelchair that Defendant intended or from other identical models of the wheelchair. Rather, “Plaintiff[] make[s] only conclusory allegations” that the product is defective, which is insufficient to allege a manufacturing defect claim.

Id. at *25-26 (citations omitted).

Continue Reading Bad Experiences and Serious Injury Do Not Make a Drug and Device Law Claim

Bexis, who took some lumps in probably the worst Wisconsin product liability decision ever (he filed PLAC’s amicus brief in Thomas v. Mallett, 701 N.W.2d 523 (Wis. 2005)), just read what we believe is the best Wisconsin law decision ever – at least in the drug/medical device sandbox that we inhabit. The decision is In re Zimmer Nexgen Knee Implant Products Liability Litigation, 2016 WL 6135685 (N.D. Ill. Oct. 21, 2016) (since the caption is a mouthful, we’ll call it “ZNKI“).

Here’s why ZNKI is favorable on Wisconsin legal issues.

First, as our longstanding 50-state survey on the learned intermediary rule points out, Wisconsin is one of nine states in which only federal courts predicting state law have had occasion to adopt the learned intermediary rule.  Looking more closely at these nine, Wisconsin is one of only two states (South Dakota being the other) where only federal district courts have reached this holding.  What isn’t there, but is discussed in ZNKI, is that some courts have (without much reasoning) refused to predict Wisconsin’s adherence to the rule.  Refusing to dodge the issue, ZNKI forthrightly examines both Wisconsin precedent and the general state of the law and concludes that Wisconsin would join the nationwide learned intermediary consensus:

[F]ederal courts applying Wisconsin law have reached different conclusions about the doctrine’s applicability.  The vast majority of states, however, do employ some version of the doctrine.  In addition, this court’s research suggests that those courts that have declined to apply the doctrine under Wisconsin law have done so in cases involving prescription drugs, not medical devices, and those courts offer no reason to believe that the Wisconsin Supreme Court would not adopt this majority rule if presented with the issue.

In the context of . . . surgery, a patient must rely on the experience and judgment of his or her surgeon, who selects the appropriate implant and educates the patient about the particular risks − based on the patient’s particular circumstances and physiology. . . .  Given that context, and given the widespread acceptance of the doctrine throughout the country, the court believes it is likely that the Wisconsin Supreme Court would apply the learned intermediary doctrine in this case.

ZNKI, 2016 WL 6135685, at *19-20 (numerous citations omitted).  As we’ve pointed out recently, the learned intermediary rule is, if anything, enjoying a renaissance, with thirteen straight state high court adoptions since the infamous Karl case (since overruled by statute) was the only supreme court to go the other way.

Continue Reading Probably the Best Wisconsin Law Decision We’ve Ever Seen

The Third Circuit just confirmed what we all knew had to be true in device litigation: pointing to the failure of another device in another patient or to a supposedly better label for a different device is not nearly enough to get to trial on design defect or failure to warn claims. That’s precisely what the Zimmer hip-implant plaintiff tried in Kline v. Zimmer Holdings, Inc., 2016 WL 5864886 (3d Cir. Oct. 7, 2016), and the Third Circuit rejected it.

To support his design defect claim, the plaintiff submitted an affidavit from his treating doctor discussing a different patient who also had a failure of a Zimmer hip implant. But the occurrence of two purported failures does not clear the way to trial. In fact, the court only had to scratch the surface of the affidavit to see its problems. The other patient’s product was a different Zimmer product. The circumstances of the other patient, the implant and its failure were different. There was no evidence as to what caused the other device’s failure. And the other patient’s implant failed after the device had already been implanted in plaintiff. These facts so solidly established the irrelevance of the affidavit that the Third Circuit held it inadmissible. The plaintiff also tried a host of design defect theories from his experts that were just that—theories—but with, as the Third Circuit held, no “record evidence showing any of these design choices were unreasonable.” It then upheld summary judgment against plaintiff’s design defect claims.

The Third Circuit was equally unimpressed with plaintiff’s failure-to-warn evidence. That evidence consisted of pointing to another product’s label, which included a contraindication for patients at a certain weight or BMI, something that the label for the Zimmer product did not have. But that was the extent of plaintiff’s evidence. He did not show that the other device was similar to the Zimmer device. He did not show that the other device’s contraindication was reasonable or why. And he did not show that the risk of fracture in the Zimmer device with patients at such a weight or BMI was high enough to warrant a contraindication. It seems that plaintiff thought that, like pointing to another patient who experienced a failure of a different device, pointing to a contraindication in a different device’s label would get him to trial. It did not. The Third Circuit upheld summary judgment against plaintiff on his failure to warn claim.

Not surprisingly, pointing to the mere existence of other products’ failures or labeling isn’t nearly enough to prove a plaintiff’s claims. We all knew that. To the extent we had any doubts, the Third Circuit just dispelled them.