It’s been a long road.  Well after product liability litigation over Accutane and inflammatory bowel disease (“IBD”) had been thoroughly debunked everywhere else in the nation, such litigation lived on in New Jersey – for year after interminable year.  First, a number of trials occurred, but literally every verdict for the plaintiffs was reversed on appeal.  Here are some of our posts on that phase of the litigation.  Then, once the trial court had had enough and began dismissing large numbers of cases, the intermediate appellate court reversed those decisions, too.  Here are some of our posts on that phase of the litigation.

Ultimately, it was up to the New Jersey Supreme Court to step in and figure everything out.  We blogged recently about it reversing the Appellate Division and entering a landmark decision on the admissibility of expert testimony in New Jersey.  See In re Accutane Litigation, ___ A.3d ___, 2018 WL 3636867 (N.J. Aug. 1, 2018).  Well, the defendant went back to the well on the adequacy of the drug’s warnings, and yesterday it rang the bell again.  In In re Accutane Litigation, ___ A.3d ___, 2018 WL 4761403, slip op. (N.J. Oct. 3, 2018), the court unanimously reversed the Appellate Division and affirmed the grant of summary judgment against another 532 cases brought mostly by litigation tourists.  “Of the 532 plaintiffs, 18 are New Jersey residents and 514 are residents of 44 other jurisdictions.”  Id. at *5.

The trial court had told the tourist plaintiffs that they were stuck with the consequences of choosing to descend on New Jersey like a plague of locusts – New Jersey law applied, including the presumption of adequacy that the state’s Product Liability Act (“PLA”) gives to FDA-approved warnings.  The warnings were adequate as a matter of law because “plaintiffs failed to overcome the presumption of adequacy.”  2018 WL 4761403 at *5.  The Appellate Division held that the law of each of the plaintiffs’ home states, 45 states altogether, governed, and reversed summary judgment under the laws of most of those states (all but eight).  Id.

Choice of Law

The New Jersey Supreme Court first said “you’ve got to be kidding” to the Appellate Division’s multifarious choice of law result.  The plaintiffs made their bed and thus had to sleep in it:

[W]e hold that New Jersey has the most significant interests, given the consolidation of the 532 cases for MCL [multi-county litigation] purposes. . . .  The aggregation of hundreds of cases under MCL allows the resolution of common issues of law.   A trial judge cannot be expected to gain a mastery of the law of forty-five different jurisdictions.  Construing New Jersey’s PLA is challenging enough.  New Jersey’s interest in consistent, fair, and reliable outcomes cannot be achieved by applying a diverse quilt of laws to so many cases that share common issues of fact.

Accutane, 2018 WL 4761403 at *6 (summarizing ruling).  See Id. at *15-20 (lengthy discussion of rationale for applying New Jersey law to all cases).

The court “proceed[ed] under the assumption” that true conflicts existed – that “application of New Jersey’s PLA may lead to an outcome different from the application of the laws of those other jurisdictions.”  Id. at *17 (citation and quotation marks omitted).  Even so, the most “significant relationship” for choice of law purposes in all cases was New Jersey.  First, as to alleged failures to warn, the corporation’s principal place of business “is where the alleged conduct causing the injury occurred − the manufacturing and labeling of [the product].”  Id. at *18 (citation and quotation marks omitted).

Second, in mass torts, “ordinary choice-of-law practices should yield in suits consolidating large numbers of claims and that courts should apply a single law in such cases.”  Id. at *17 (citation and quotation marks omitted).

The two most significant Restatement factors in this MCL matter are . . . “certainty, predictability and uniformity of result” and . . . “ease in the determination and application of the law to be applied”.  Applying a single standard to govern the adequacy of the label warnings in the 532 individual cases will ensure predictable and uniform results − rather than disparate outcomes among similarly situated plaintiffs.

Id. at *20 (discussing factors under Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws §6 (1971)).  Litigants cannot expect “[a] single judge . . . to gain a mastery of the laws of forty-five jurisdictions.”  Id.  If mass tort plaintiffs don’t want New Jersey law to apply they should “bring suit in the state where they reside.”  Id.  Under this new, mass-tort-specific application of choice of law, the plaintiffs in Accutane were stuck with New Jersey substantive law, which “is not as beneficial to their cause as the laws of other jurisdictions.”  Id.

We recommend that defense counsel study the court’s choice of law rationale.  It is no accident that, in its discussion of choice of law, the court cited Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. v. Superior Court, 137 S. Ct. 1773 (2017).  Accutane, 2018 WL 4761403 at *20.  Save for Delaware, more major pharmaceutical manufacturers are probably “at home” in New Jersey than anywhere else.  Thus, if the other side in the future chooses to congregate in New Jersey, they’ll have to put up with New Jersey substantive law, at least if the defendant makes motions in the aggregate.  Query, however, if the practicality rationale still applies in a single “bellwether” case where the alternative is application of one other state’s law, rather than the multi-state muddle the court faced in Accutane.  We think defendants have another opportunity to exercise some strategic discretion here.

Presumption of Adequacy

On the merits, the Supreme Court agreed with the trial court, that the defendant’s warnings were adequate as a matter of law under the PLA’s presumption of adequacy of FDA-approved labeling.  Initially, we get another shout out for the learned intermediary rule from the court:

[T]he PLA codifies what is commonly referred to as the learned intermediary doctrine – . . . that the physician acts as the intermediary between the manufacturer and the patient.  The prescribing physician − as a learned intermediary − generally is in the best position to advise the patient of the benefits and risks of taking a particular drug to treat a medical condition.  Under the learned intermediary doctrine, a pharmaceutical manufacturer generally discharges its duty to warn the ultimate user of prescription drugs by supplying physicians with information about the drug’s dangerous propensities.

Accutane, 2018 WL 4761403 at *21 (citations and quotation marks omitted).  We’re always on the lookout for high court reaffirmations of the learned intermediary rule.

As to the statutory presumption of the adequacy of FDA warnings, the court reached the right result, but not before a lengthy detour based on a questionable source (a law review article written by plaintiff-side professional expert David Kessler) and the infamous decision in Wyeth v. Levine, 555 U.S. 555 (2009).  2018 WL 4761403 at *21-24.  The upshot is a ruling on how the PLA’s “rebuttable” presumption of adequacy can be rebutted:

[T]he rebuttable presumption of adequacy attaching to an FDA-approved drug label is overcome when a plaintiff presents clear and convincing evidence that a manufacturer knew or should have known, based on newly acquired information, of a causal association between the use of the drug and “a clinically significant hazard” and that the manufacturer failed to update the label accordingly.

Id. at 26.  Notably, the substantive aspects of this rebuttal standard are based on federal regulations, including the notorious Levine “CBE regulation,” 21 C.F.R. §314.70.  This result leaves little daylight between the PLA presumption and implied preemption under Levine, except for the burden of proof.  Preemption is also based on “newly acquired information” – specifically the lack of it.  So any claim that would be preempted in other jurisdictions because plaintiffs can’t point to anything new that the FDA hadn’t already considered is independently barred in New Jersey by the PLA presumption.  However, while defendants bear the burden of proving preemption, in New Jersey the PLA presumption means that plaintiffs bear the burden of proving the presence of the necessary “new” information, and must do with clear and convincing evidence, which Accutane defined as “evidence so clear, direct, weighty in terms of quality, and convincing as to cause one to come to a clear conviction of the truth of the precise facts in issue.”  Id. at *26 (citation and quotation marks omitted).

The Accutane court added “one caveat” – regardless of anything else:

A manufacturer that acts in a reasonable and timely way to update its label warnings with the FDA, in accordance with its federal regulatory responsibilities, will receive the protection of the rebuttable presumption.

Id.

The Accutane court acknowledged that this “is a standard protective of responsible drug manufacturers.”  Id.

The PLA’s rebuttable presumption of adequacy that attaches to label warnings gives pharmaceutical companies the protection necessary to research and develop the drugs that will improve and extend the lives of people around the world.  The presumption of adequacy protects manufacturers from unmeritorious lawsuits.

Id.

Plaintiffs’ Failure of Proof

Finally, Accutane applied the law to the facts, and found that none of the 532 plaintiffs came close to overcoming the statutory presumption of adequate warnings.  “[M]ultiple warning tools,” the package insert, the patient package insert, the medication guide and “blister packaging,” all warned about the possibility of IBD.  Id. at *27.  “Association” was the proper description of the drug’s relationship to the plaintiffs’ injuries; “cause” would have been too strong.  Defendant “had reports that some patients, after taking [the drug], developed symptoms of IBD.  That one followed the other does not prove cause and effect.”  Id. (citing Accutane, 2018 WL 3636867, at *8-10).  Plaintiffs offered only “isolated examples” that had been “culled from the voluminous discovery.”  Id. at *27-28.  “To be sure,” that evidence “is not clear and convincing evidence that [defendant] knew or should have known that the use of the word ‘associated’ was inadequate.”  Id. at *28.

Nor is there any evidence that [defendant] avoided necessary label changes for economic reasons.  [Defendant’s] marketing personnel certainly expressed an interest in Accutane’s financial success; it would have been surprising if it were otherwise.  However, there is no evidence that [defendant’s] financial interest in Accutane’s success led it to withhold necessary IBD-related warnings.

Id.

*          *          *          *

This latest Accutane decision is a great result and should finally drive a stake through this vampire of a litigation.  Still, a couple aspects of this ruling give us pause.  As for choice of law, the application of multiple states’ laws was one means of defending against class actions, since doing so defeated both proportionality and manageability.  Many other reasons for rejecting class actions in personal injury litigation remain, but like practically everything else about choice of law, this could be a two-edged sword.  Second, the continued willingness of New Jersey courts to craft extra-statutory “exceptions” to the New Jersey legislature’s presumption of adequacy of FDA warnings bothers us doctrinally.  The statute says what it says, and we think that – as with all other statutory provisions (including preemption clauses) – courts should enforce statutes as written, and not use subsequent developments to change what the legislature did.  Short of a constitutional issue, courts should not encroach on the legislature’s prerogative to draft legislation.

The court may have taken a relaxed approach, but its decision has done nothing but raise blood pressures over at that DDL blog. The course of the Accutane litigation in New Jersey has been labored and we’ve posted about the whole journey. For years, we were pretty riled up. The news from the coordinated proceeding in the trial court had been very bad, including a few large plaintiff verdicts. Then the litigation got reassigned and under new management the tide began to turn. We could feel our pulse returning to normal. The new judge’s look at old issues has been more balanced (from our view), as has the Appellate Division’s review of old decisions. Indeed, the Appellate Division has vacated at least a half dozen plaintiff verdicts. After so many tortuous years, defendants in the New Jersey Accutane litigation finally had a reason to smile (actually thousands of reasons if reasons are dismissals). So we definitively can say we were unpleasantly surprised when last week the Appellate Division reversed the trial court’s order excluding certain plaintiff causation expert witnesses resulting in reviving over 2000 cases.

The to-be-published decision can currently be found at In re Accutane Litigation, 2017 N.J. Super. LEXIS 116 (App. Div. Jul. 28, 2017). It’s a long opinion with a lengthy discussion of epidemiology in general and the epidemiologic evidence pertaining to Accutane specifically. We’ll try to just hit the relevant highlights.

First a quick primer on New Jersey law on the admissibility of expert evidence. New Jersey has adopted a “relaxed” general acceptance standard for toxic tort and pharmaceutical cases. See Rubanick v. Witco Chemical Corp., 125 N.J. 421, 449 (1991). That means that if the expert’s theory is not generally accepted, it may still be admissible if it is “based on a sound, adequately-founded scientific methodology involving data and information of the type reasonably relied on by experts in the scientific field.” In re Accutane, at *47. Further, specifically in regard to reliance on epidemiology as evidence of causation, the court must address not just methodology but also the expert’s reasoning in applying or relying on that methodology to reach his/her conclusions. Id. The court should not only review the studies and other information to determine if they are the type of data experts ordinarily rely on but also “examine the manner in which experts reason from the studies and other information to a conclusion.” Id. at *51.

As we mentioned, the litigation has been handled by two different trial judges. The first judge allowed the opinions of plaintiffs’ experts based on the same type of evidence relied on by plaintiffs’ experts here. Id. at *5. But this litigation has been pending for 14 years. The science has not been stagnant during that time. From 2003 to 2009, there were no epidemiological studies regarding Accutane and irritable bowel disease (IBD) or Crohn’s disease. Id. at *8. Epidemiological studies are considered at the top of the scientific hierarchy. Experimental studies (double-blind randomized control trials) are the gold standard and observational studies (case-control or cohort studies) are the next best available evidence. Without those, plaintiffs’ experts were permitted to rely on “animal studies, human clinical studies, case reports, class effects, published scientific literature, causality assessments, and biological plausibility.” Id. In other words, they were permitted to use less reliable evidence because that is all there was.

But in 2009 and 2010, the first epidemiological studies were published – both of which found no statistically significant increased risk for developing Crohn’s disease from the use of Accutane. Id. Six more epidemiological studies followed and while the results vary, “with one exception, none of them demonstrates a statistically significant increased risk of developing Crohn’s disease.” Id. at *9. Despite the evolving state of the science, plaintiffs’ experts chose to discount the epidemiology in favor of the “other information” on which they had previously relied.

Applying even the New Jersey “relaxed” standard, the trial court found that plaintiffs’ experts reasoning and methodology “slanted away from objective science and in the direction of advocacy.” Id. at *53-54. After reviewing the evidence and conducting a full Kemp hearing (New Jersey’s version of a Daubert hearing), the trial court concluded that the epidemiologic evidence did not support a reasonable inference of a causal link between Accutane and Crohn’s disease. Plaintiff’s experts ignored the studies’ authors own conclusions, excluded the larger population based studies, and made assumptions to “bridge an analytical gap in his methodology.” Id. at *54-55.

We’ve blogged before about the risk of allowing litigation to march ahead of science. As the United States Supreme Court explained in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579, 597 (1993), the goal of “reaching a quick, final, and binding legal judgment” on matters that are “often of great consequence” is not advanced by accepting hypotheses and conjectures in the place of reliable scientific evidence. But that is exactly what the New Jersey Appellate Division seems determined to do. The court announced its guiding principle as the antithesis of Daubert: “legal decision making in toxic tort and similar cases may vary from scientific decision making.”  Id. at *69. This doesn’t even reconcile with the New Jersey standard that requires general acceptance in the scientific community of an expert’s methodology and reasoning.

And what happens when “legal decision making” supplants the scientific process? Experts get to do things differently in the courtroom than in practice. They can ignore big epidemiologic studies not finding a statistically significant relationship for little ones that do, as long as they come up with some critique of the larger studies that lets them.  They can use data further down the “hierarchy” even though top tier evidence is against them.  They can rely upon their clinical experience in deciding what evidence accords with it. Precisely the types of things Daubert, Rubanick, and Kemp say should not be permitted.

Further, while giving lip service to the fact that “science is constantly evolving” and that “legal decisions need to be made based on the best evidence available at the time of the decision” – the court seems to be mired in the past. Id. at *69. It concludes that despite the overwhelming epidemiological evidence that demonstrates no statistically significant increase in the risk of Crohn’s disease from taking Accutane, plaintiffs’ experts can continue to rely on “other types” of evidence – “which in this same MCL docket they were previously permitted to use.” Id. at *70. Why is that part of the equation? As much as litigation shouldn’t lead science, it shouldn’t lag it either. It should move with it. The state of the science is vastly different than it was 14 years ago, and the court seems to be willing to overlook those developments. The opinion states that the decision “must be viewed in the context of this particular MCL litigation” and “concern[s] the survival of plaintiffs’ cause of action in the face of new scientific information.” Id. at *68-69. Exactly. Plaintiffs’ claims need to be assessed on the basis of the new scientific evidence. And if the claims can no longer survive based on the evolving scientific evidence, then that is the result. Ultimately, however, what seemed to matter more than accurately applying the law to the current state of the science, was “[t]he opportunity of thousands of plaintiffs, claiming injury from Accutane, to have their day in court.” Id. at *69.

If you read the decision in Rossitto v. Hoffmann-LaRoche Inc., 2016 N.J. Super. Unpub. LEXIS 1714 (N.J. App. Div. Jul 22, 2016), we think you’ll agree with our calling it “strong” criticism of two trial rulings that the appellate court firmly believed led to undue prejudice of the defendant.  The $18 million verdict awarded to two of four plaintiffs in a joint trial was vacated and the case is being remanded for a new trial.  This is not the first Accutane plaintiff’s verdict to be vacated by New Jersey’s appellate division, but rather another notch in the demise of this litigation which has seen a turn in favor of defendant since coming under new management.  Indeed, a quick search of the DDL blog for Accutane will show how the tide has turned.

The Accutane litigation is primarily comprised of claims alleging that the manufacturer failed to adequately warn about the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (“IBD”).  Therefore, the drug’s label takes center stage.  Here, the plaintiffs both used the drug with its 1984 label that included a warning that “Accutane has been temporally associated with IBD.”  Id. at *8.  In May 2000, after plaintiffs had stopped using Accutane, the label was revised to remove the word “temporally” and to add information about persistent IBD symptoms.  Id. at *18.

Although only one of the plaintiffs was a New Jersey resident, the parties agreed that New Jersey law would apply to both.  Id. at *34.  So, New Jersey’s “super-presumption” applies – that is if the warning given has been approved by the FDA, there is a rebuttable presumption of adequacy.  Id. at *37.  Called a “super-presumption” because it is “virtually dispositive” on failure to warn, it can be overcome with evidence of intentional concealment of a known risk or “substantial evidence of economically-driven manipulation of the post-market regulatory process.”  Id. at *37-38.  Plaintiffs got to trial in these cases because the New Jersey courts have found that as to the 1984 label plaintiffs have put forth enough evidence from which a reasonable jury could conclude they had rebutted the presumption.  Id.  at *55-56 (citing prior Accutane decisions addressing this issue).   But it’s a strong presumption so we decided to take the time to remind you about it.

Continue Reading New Jersey Accutane Plaintiff Verdict Vacated – Appellate Division Strongly Criticizes Evidentiary Rulings

The demise of the New Jersey Accutane litigation under the new mass tort judge continues apace.  Today 31 more Accutane cases were dismissed for failure to establish warning causation under the learned intermediary rule.  The order is here, but the actual opinion is about halfway through the PDF, so keep looking, you’ll find it.

It’s worth looking for, too.

This round of dismissals is all about the learned intermediary rule.  The court recites six bases for the rule:  (1) prescription drugs have risks that require a prescription in the first place; (2) prescription drugs are complex, requiring a doctor to make patient-specific assessments; (3) direct warnings to patients are impracticable’ (4) medical ethics require the physician to act as intermediary; (5) patients can’t be expected to evaluate technical information; and (6) not to put too fine a point on it – plaintiffs tend to lie once they get into litigation (“human nature is what it is”).  In re Accutane Litigation, No. 271, slip op. at 7 (N.J. Super. Law Div. Jan. 29, 2016).  In these 32 cases:

In each claim, there was a “willing patient” who only thought differently upon acquiring new information via the litigation process.  Because the doctors, in each and every instance, testified that even with a different warning they still would have prescribed the medicine, the manufacturer’s duty is fulfilled.  Because the warning is directed to the prescribing physician, she/he is afforded the opportunity to engage in “hindsight” and opine on what they would have done had they known then what they knew at the time of their deposition, Plaintiffs are not afforded an opportunity at “hindsight.”

Slip op. at 9.

In only one case was summary judgment denied, without prejudice, because a deposition hadn’t been completed.  Id. at 11-12.

Choice of law was no obstacle.  These plaintiffs all chose to come to New Jersey and asked for New Jersey law, so they got what they asked for.  Id. at 9-10.  Ask for a New Jersey mass tort, and you get New Jersey law.  Next time, plaintiffs, be more careful what you ask for.  But since the learned intermediary rule is virtually universal, even under other states’ law (Kansas, Louisiana, California, Texas) the result is the same.  Page after page of the slip opinion (pp. 11-36) consist of minor variants on the theme of no change in prescribing behavior equals no causation.

Without pulling back the curtain all the way on how we find out about new decisions worth a pithy post, we occasionally re-learn about decisions when they are published or added to an electronic reporting service a few months later. When there is a slow week, this dynamic may prompt us to talk about an older decision, even if has already been the subject of a breaking news post. The summary judgment decision in In re Accutane Litigation, No. 271 (MCL), 2015 N.J. Super. Unpub. LEXIS 1216 (N.J. Super. Law Div. Apr. 2, 2015) was the subject of a breaking news post two months ago, but deserves another look, more for the story it tells about drug litigation than for its direct precedential value.

We have posted through the years about the tortured course of Accutane litigation over the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (“IBD”). (There have also been cases about birth defect and suicidality, but we are not focusing on those here.) In general, the news out of the MDL proceeding has been good for years, both on expert issues and the substance of plaintiffs’ claims.   For years, the news from the coordinated proceeding in New Jersey has been very bad, including a few large plaintiff verdicts. Issues with the judge who had overseen the New Jersey proceedings were highly publicized (but not by us), and it is easy to say that her assignment to a new post explained the sea change.

We can guess that the new judge’s look at old issues has been more balanced (from our view), as has the Appellate Division’s review of old decisions. There has also, though, been development in the case law on the New Jersey Product Liability Act (NJPLA) that undercut the legal basis for old (bad) decisions. The persistence of the defendant and willingness of the new judge to consider broad issues late in the life of the litigation bring us to the decision finding the IBD warnings since April 2002 to be adequate as a matter of law under the NJPLA, which sets up a potential adoption for cases where other state law may control.

The history of Accutane’s IBD warnings from the approval of the drug in 1984 through the discontinuation of its sale in 2009 is so extensive that we wonder how warnings claims—the only claims we think should be typically available for a prescription drug—ever could have had legs. As discussed below, we also wonder about other reasons why warnings claims should not have been viable. The court provides detailed findings of fact about the warnings for IBD, which included mechanisms for providing warnings not seen with most prescription drugs. Id. at **15-26. We assume the extra measures were driven by concerns about suicidality in teenage patients and birth defects in their offspring, but IBD was also described in the warnings accompanying blister packs (the only means of distribution since 1990), a guide that physicians had to acknowledge receiving in order to prescribe the drug, a guide that pharmacists had to provide to patients while filling their prescriptions, and brochure that physicians were encouraged to give to patients. Combined with a paragraph in the Warnings section of the package insert, the information provided to physicians warned them up, down, and side to side about the risk of IBD. That sounds a lot like an adequate IBD warning as a matter of law under any state’s law on prescription drug warnings. Continue Reading Deeper Dive on New Jersey Accutane Summary Judgment Decision

This just in – after many years of litigation, the post April 10, 2002 warnings on Accutane were determined to be adequate as a matter of law by the New Jersey judge tasked with overseeing this mass tort.  A copy of today’s opinion is here.

Most of the opinion is factual.  Legally, the determination is made under New Jersey law, since the 800+ plaintiffs chose to come to that forum.  New Jersey law, of course, has a presumption of adequacy of FDA approved labels.  Accutaneslip op. at 18-19.  Only certain types of proof can overcome the presumption, and plaintiffs failed to produce such evidence, despite repeated opportunities..  Id. at 19.  Thus:

Taken as a whole, the warning system crafted by Defendants conveys a meaning as to potential risks and consequences that is unmistakable. It is inconceivable to this court that the reasonable dermatologist (or any physician, generally) of ordinary education, training and experience could examine the materials comprising the warning literature and not immediately conclude that Accutane has been associated with life-altering side effects, including IBD [Inflammatory Bowel Disease].  At multiple points, IBD is explicitly communicated to the prescribing physician as a potential risk of Accutane ingestion.

Id. at 20. Various rulings by the prior judge supervising this mass tort were inoperative, because that court “did not have the benefit” of more recent New Jersey appellate authority.  Id. at 4 (citing Deboard v. Wyeth, 28 A.3d 1245 (N.J. Super. App. Div. 2011)).

The Accutane plaintiffs have only one shot left – they can try to escape New Jersey law, despite voluntarily coming to the forum, by alleging that some other state’s law applies that:  (1) avoids the learned intermediary rule (very few states, in our estimation), (2) does not allow warning adequacy to be decided as a matter of law (we know of none that preclude such a determination no matter what the facts), or (3) imposes a “heavier burden of proof” than New Jersey.  Id. at 21.  We predict that most plaintiffs will try to open door #3, due to the statutory presumption of adequacy – but we doubt the underlying standard of adequacy (putting aside the presumption) will vary very much.

It is likely that the New Jersey Accutane plaintiffs are approaching the end of their rope.

Snip snip.

A couple of weeks ago, we talked about Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show.  We were eagerly anticipating the Best in Show competition, which was slated to feature a Standard Poodle – the breed of our heart – along with a Portuguese Water Dog whose record of wins was unprecedented in dog show history.  Based on this past record, the “PWD” was heavily favored to “take the Garden.” The Best in Show judge (few assignments in dogdom carry more prestige) built the tension in the sold-out stadium to a fever pitch.  The dogs submitted to painstaking “hands on” examinations, they “free-stacked,” they gaited.   And they gaited again.  Finally, the judge, flanked by AKC officials, strode purposefully to the table to “sign the book,” then returned to the center of the ring, microphone turned on, purple and gold rosette and trophy in hand.   He made a moving speech about the history of the event, and he praised the lineup of seven gorgeous group winners.   Pausing one more time for effect, he announced, “Best in Show at the 139th Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is . . .  the Beagle!”  The Beagle? Make no mistake – “Miss P” is a spectacular show dog, with many Best in Show wins to her credit.  She is a striking example of her breed.  And she is very, very cute.   But it just wasn’t what we expected.

We also thought we knew what to expect when we began reading the recent decision of the Superior Court of New Jersey – Atlantic County — in the Accutane Multicounty Litigation. This litigation, in which plaintiffs allege that Isotretinoin (Accutane’s chemical name) causes Inflammatory Bowel Disease (“IBD”) and Crohn’s Disease (“CD”), has been pending since 2003, and we have been troubled, at times, about an apparent plaintiff bias. Appellate courts have agreed with us, overturning a number of plaintiffs’ verdicts. (See here and here, for example.)  But we were most pleasantly surprised this time.

In In re Accutane Litigation, 2015 WL 753674 (N. J. Super. Law. Feb. 20, 2015), the Court considered defendant’s motion to exclude plaintiffs’ general causation and biostatistics experts.  The Court explained that New Jersey applies a standard less stringent than Frye’s “general acceptance” standard, in determining whether expert testimony is admissible.  Under the guiding Rubanick decision of the New Jersey Supreme Court (125 N.J. 421 (1991)), “if the methodology by which the expert reached a conclusion is sound, the conclusion may be introduced into evidence.”  Accutane, 2015 WL 753674 at *4 (citation to Rubanick omitted).  Later, in Kemp v. The State of New Jersey,  174 N.J. 412 (2002), the Supreme Court held that the trial court was obligated to conduct an evidentiary hearing “any time an expert’s theory has not attained ‘general acceptance,’” and that the failure to do so is “plain error.” Accutane, 2015 WL 753674 at *6 (citations to Kemp omitted).  Hence the moniker “Kemp hearing” to describe hearings such as the one that was the subject of the Court’s decision.

Continue Reading A Pleasant Surprise from the Accutane MCL

This post is from Bexis:

In a decision reflective of how attorney solicitation dredges up bad cases that should never have been filed, a New Jersey appellate court has handed the defense three wins in its Accutane litigation involving inflammatory bowel disease (“IBD”).  Gaghan v. Hoffman-La Roche, Inc.,Nos. A-2717-11T2, et al., slip op. (New Jersey Super. A.D. Aug. 4, 2014)Gaghan involved three appeals, two from defense verdicts and one from a plaintiff’s verdict, affirming the defense wins and reversing the one adverse verdict.  The trial had been something of a circus – three unrelated Accutane plaintiffs’ cases tried together.  All three plaintiffs were litigation tourists from California, so that state’s law applied, which is probably why the decision is unpublished.  It certainly is detailed enough to be published, had it not been one state’s courts opining on the law of another state.

Continue Reading Accutane Triple Win in Jersey

Several years ago we vacationed in Toronto. Back then, the Drug and Device Law Son split his time between hockey and videogames. He was a goalie, so, like his dad, he was always on defense. We visited the Hockey Hall of Fame, tap-danced on the glass floor in the CN Tower, had dinner at Wayne Gretzky’s restaurant, took in a Maple Leafs game, and wandered around the huge underground mall. With the sort of weather that reigns in the True North, an underground mall (really an entire underground city) makes a lot of sense. We noticed that many of the stores had a slogan on the walls: “The World Needs More Canada.” It’s hard to argue with that. Canada has pretty much everything we like (a nice standard of living, cultural offerings, and poutine), and not so much of those things we don’t like (crime, arrogance, and crocodiles).   How can you not admire a country that has given us Joni Mitchell, Bobby Orr, and Pamela Anderson, as well as the inventors of the zipper, basketball, and Trivial Pursuit?  And we look back with fondness at a college road trip adventure, when we drifted across the border to empty the town of Magog of Molson Brador.  (Bexis points out that Canada is also responsible for the rock groups Rush and BTO.  Hmmmm.  That fact might prompt us to reconsider the whole premise of this paragraph.)

Every once in a while we have the opportunity to blog about drug and device developments north of the border, involving matters also being litigated in the USA. As we said above, there’s a lot to like about Canada.  But its class action law is usually something we don’t like so much.  Canada’s application of class action certification rules is considerably more liberal than the corresponding rules here — excepting, perhaps, certain rogue counties in Southern Illinois.  Nevertheless, we are pleased to relay some good news from the Canadian courts.  Our friends at Covington, specifically Michael Imbroscio, sent us a decision by the Quebec Superior Court rejecting certification (what they call “authorization” in Quebec) of a proposed class action alleging that Accutane (isotretinoin) caused inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in Lebrasseur v. Hoffman – La Roche Limitee, (Quebec Superior Court file no. 500-06-000512-109). The decision is in French, which we cannot read (though the Drug and Device Law Son says he can, and even has the grades to prove it), so we are trusting Covington’s summary.  But for those of you who claim the ability to read Proust and Moliere in the original, here is a copy of the Quebec court’s opinion.

Continue Reading Quebec Court Denies Accutane Class Certification

Law 360 (subscription required) has a story today about a motion filed by Hoffmann-LaRoche seeking the recusal of Judge Carol Higbee from the New Jersey Accutane Mass Tort.   We can’t comment because both Reed Smith and Dechert have other matters pending in that court.   However, here is a link to the motion for any of our readers who are interested.