This DDL blogger happens to have a relatively new teenager in the house. And said teen has been working on an assignment related to the novel by Lois Lowry, “The Giver.” If you are unfamiliar with the book or the more recent movie adaptation (and if you only know the movie, we recommend the book as the former doesn’t dig deep enough into the source material’s thought-provoking ideas), it is about a seemingly utopian society without war, poverty, pain, or suffering. This state of perfection is achieved through sameness. Everyone dresses the same, speaks the same, acts the same. The goal is to eliminate all conflict and for no one to feel uncomfortable. And to achieve this, free will and freedom of choice are non-existent.
The book’s themes have made for some very interesting dinner table debates about the benefits and drawbacks of sameness. While we’ve managed to identify the obvious benefits, we also always find the benefit comes at a price that we are typically not willing to pay. Sacrificing the ability to feel love to also not have to endure feeling pain. Sacrificing human life so that there is no hunger. So, in this DDL household, sameness has come under considerable attack and it is no surprise that individuality is being championed by the teen (and parent too, with some limitations).
And as we transition from home life to work life, we couldn’t help but acknowledge the parallel as we again find ourselves the advocates of individuality over sameness. This time it’s about a flawed class rather than a dystopian society.
In Andre v. Alere, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 69045, *3 (S.D. Cal. Apr. 24, 2018), putative class representatives allege that defendants’ marketing of its INRatio products was deceptive and misleading and that defendants are therefore liable under various state’s consumer protection laws. The INRatio products are handheld devices used to monitor blood clotting time in people taking warfarin. Class certification was originally denied back in December as to both a nationwide class and as to alleged state-specific sub-classes. Id. at *4-5. Plaintiffs sought reconsideration as to the six sub-class states (Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania). They allege that based on new facts they can satisfy Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23(b)(3)’s predominance requirement as to the learned intermediary doctrine, statute of limitations, and damages. The court disagreed.
For a class to be certified, Rule 23(b)(3) requires that “the question of law or fact common to class members predominate over any questions affecting only individual members.” And the court’s analysis is a “rigorous” one that can extend beyond the pleadings. Id. at *6.
Plaintiffs, for the first time in their reply brief, argued that the learned intermediary doctrine did not apply to their claims for several reasons. First, they alleged it does not apply because they are alleging a design defect claim not a failure to warn claim. But, that argument didn’t align with the allegations of their complaint which were about omissions and representations – i.e. failure to warn. Id. at *14. Nor did plaintiffs’ cite any authority for learned intermediary not applying to design defect claims. Id. Next plaintiff argued that the learned intermediary doctrine doesn’t apply where only economic injuries are sought. But again, they offered no legal support for their contention. Id. Finally, plaintiffs argued that because the INRatio product is user-operated, the doctrine doesn’t apply. On this point, it appears plaintiffs and defendants submitted competing examples of how prescribed medical devices that involve some patient operation are treated and concluded plaintiff’s argument was not persuasive. Id. at *15. Regardless of whether the patient has to be the one to use the device daily, it still had to be prescribed by his/her physician warranting application of the learned intermediary doctrine.
So, since the learned intermediary doctrine is applicable, Plaintiffs had to argue that it is subject to “common proof.” They did this by alleging that defendants “failed to warn any physicians.” Id. at *7-8 (emphasis added). But, as defendants argued, the inadequacy of the warning is only part of the equation. Plaintiffs must also show that “the inadequate or lack of warnings were the proximate cause of Plaintiffs’ injuries.” Id. at *8. The court cites at least one case from each of the six states at issue to support the proximate cause arm of the learned intermediary rule. Id. at *10-11. What all of those cases have in common is the conclusion that “proximate cause determination will ultimately lead to individual inquiries into each doctor’s experience with the product.” Id. at *12. Inquiries such as the extent of the physician’s knowledge of the risks and side effects and the source of that knowledge; and whether the physician stands by his/her prescribing decision; and the physician’s individualized medical decision based both on his/her knowledge of the product and of the patient. Id. at *12-13. While warning adequacy might be subject to common proof, individuality predominates on the issue of specific, proximate causation. Also, plaintiffs couldn’t point to a single case where class certification was granted involving the learned intermediary doctrine.
Class certification was also denied due to the lack of predominance as to damages and the statute of limitations. Again, individuality can’t be ignored.
On damages, plaintiffs put forth a full-refund model under California law and argued that it satisfied predominance and that a state-by-state analysis was not necessary. Id. at *16-17. The court, however, found that the cases plaintiffs relied on were not that black and white. See id. at *17-19 (analyzing plaintiff’s cases). It was not enough to summarily conclude that predominance was satisfied as to all because it was satisfied as to some. The required “rigorous analysis”
is not satisfied by merely arguing that courts in some of the six states allow for a full refund model. Plaintiffs have failed to specifically demonstrate that each of the six sub-class states’ consumer protection statute and claims for implied breach of warranty in four sub-class states are connected to their theory of damages or that these state law causes of action damages provide for a full refund recovery.
Id. at *21. Plaintiffs had to show sameness among the six states, which it failed to do.
As to statute of limitations, plaintiffs argued that because each of the six states recognizes equitable tolling and/or the discovery rule, “then necessarily common proof will prevail over individualized questions” because no plaintiff knew until the product was recalled that the product was defective. Id. at *22-23. But plaintiffs ignore that both equitable tolling and the discovery rule require consideration of whether the plaintiff acted with due diligence – an individualized inquiry. Id. at *23. The court gives an example from the complaint of one of the putative class representative’s experiences with the device that should have alerted him to an issue before recall and points out that plaintiffs have not addressed how equitable tolling or the discovery rule would apply in that situation. Id. at *24. Since it cannot be determined if the statute would be tolled for all plaintiffs from the date of recall, individual issues predominate over common ones.
In “The Giver” sameness is a metaphor for the lack of truth and diversity. The destroyer of creativity, free will, joy, happiness, and love. The things that make life worth living. In DDL world individuality may not be the meaning of life, but it’s enough to ward off class actions which certainly makes us happy.